園藝學院學術專家報告

聯系人:張飛聯系方式:84396502發布時間:2019-11-22

題目:Revisiting the role of structural variants in plant adaptation, speciation, and improvement

報告人:Loren H. Rieseberg

工作單位:加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學

時間:20191127日上午9:00-10:30

地點:生科樓B4011


附:報告人簡介和報告摘要

報告人簡介:Loren H. Rieseberg1987年獲得華盛頓州立大學植物學系博士學位,現任加拿大英屬哥倫比亞大學(UBCKillam教授、生物多樣性研究中心主任、加拿大植物進化基因組學研究主席,為國際植物進化生物學領域頂級科學家;曾任職于美國南加州Rancho Santa Ana植物園(1987 ~ 1993)和印第安納大學(1993 ~ 2006)。Rieseberg實驗室主要利用進化基因組學和田間(溫室)試驗統計方法研究菊科向日葵屬植物的物種起源和進化機制、野生資源的遺傳多樣性和雜草入侵機制,為農作物遺傳改良提供指導。Rieseberg教授在ScienceNatureNature PlantsNature CommunicationsMolecular Biology and EvolutionScience Advances、PNASPlant Cell等國際主流期刊發表學術論文300余篇,Web of Science他引次數>24 000次,h-index84,被Clarivate Analytics評為高被引科學家;其憑借在進化生物學領域的杰出貢獻,多次獲MacArthur and Guggenheim Fellowshipsthe David Starr Jordan Prize the Darwin-Wallace Medal等榮譽。目前,Rieseberg教授為英國(倫敦)和加拿大皇家學會、美國和挪威科學與藝術學院院士(elected fellow),曾任美國遺傳學會(2006)和植物學會主席(2017 ~ 2018);1999年至今,擔任Molecular Ecology主編。2017年受聘園藝學院“111”引智基地外籍學術大師。其他信息詳見Rieseberg教授實驗室網站:http://rieseberglab.botany.ubc.ca/

  

報告摘要:In plant species, structural variants affect more base pairs than do single nucleotide polymorphisms and typically have outsized effects when included in GWAS analyses. However, only recently have we had the genomic tools needed to fully explore the impact of structural changes in wild and domesticated species. Here I will first discuss the role of large structural variants (e.g., chromosomal inversions) as recombination modifiers. By suppressing recombination between genes underlying local adaptation and reproductive isolation, such structural changes resolve the antagonism between natural selection and recombination, thereby permitting divergence with gene flow. As an example, we recently discovered 34 large segregating inversions in hybridizing sunflowers that co-vary with distinctive ecotypes and are associated with ecologically relevant developmental, physiological, and climate variation. This proliferation of inversions solves a longstanding mystery of how sunflowers diversified in the face of rampant gene exchange. Following my discussion of the role of inversions in the diversification of natural populations, I will shift my focus to the origin and impacts of structural variants during crop improvement. Structural variants hamper plant and animal breeding because they impede recombination and introgression and can be the cause of hybrid inviability or sterility.Focusing on the cultivated sunflower gene pool, I will show that structural variants are over-represented in introgressions from wild species that were introduced by breeding programs. In many cases, genes are missing in the introgressions, which I suspect may be a frequent cause of linkage drag. Such missing genes and other structural variants can be complemented in hybrid crops, which offers a potential means for exploiting wild relative alleles for improvement without sacrificing productivity.

  

歡迎各位老師和同學參加交流!


閱讀次數:555

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